research into language

Posted in research by Lina A.Hadi on June 28, 2011

Terminology coming up in my research,

syntagmeme:  A syntactic construction, viewed as a sequence of the tagmemes of which it consists. ( wikipedia)

lexeme: A unit of lexical meaning, which exists regardless of any inflectional endings it may have or the number of words it may contain. Thus, fibrillate, rain cats and dogs, and come in are all lexemes, as are elephant, jog, cholesterol, happiness, put up with, face the music, and hundreds of thousands of other meaningful items in English. The headwords in a dictionary are all lexemes.” (David Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 2003)

eg. Cat – 1 lexeme, augmented to plural by the morpheme {s}


morpheme any of the minimal grammatical units of a language, eachconstituting a word or meaningful part of a word, that cannot bedivided into smaller independent grammatical parts, as the, write, or the -ed of waited. (
( {kæt} and {s} 2 morphemes)


phoneme  (/kæts/ 3 phonemes)

” .. each eme is a class of minimal distinctive functional units that contrasts with all other classes at its own level, and each ’eme’ is in  a given utterance represented, or attested, by a phonetic event that is recognisable as belonging to that class.” (Pulgram,1966)

Typology of writing systems

distinction between phonemic and phonetic: phonemic writing does not include the sub-phonemic (allophonic) variations. phonetic includes all variations of a single phoneme. eg: aspirated p in pin and non-aspirated p in spin (Pulgram, 1966)


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